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Admission Tests GMAT Dumps

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Total 465 questions

Graduate Management Admission Test (2022) Questions and Answers

Question 1

What is the value of x + y?

Options:

A.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

B.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

C.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

D.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

E.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Question 2

Last month Ann, Bob, Carl, Dave, and Ellen volunteered at a hospital. The number of hours that Carl volunteered was equal to the average (arithmetic mean) number of hours volunteered by the 5 people. If the number of hours that Carl volunteered was also equal to the total number of hours that Ann and Bob volunteered, then the total number of hours that Dave and Ellen volunteered was how many times the number of hours that Carl volunteered?

Options:

A.

2

B.

3

C.

4

D.

5

E.

6

Question 3

At a certain used-book store, the cost of each paperback book is x dollars and the cost of each hardcover book is y dollars. What is the cost of a hardcover book at the store?

(1)

At the store, the cost of 3 paperback books and 5 hardcover books is $12.25.

(2)

At the store, the cost of 9 paperback books and 15 hardcover books is $36.75.

Options:

A.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

B.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

C.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

D.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

E.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Question 4

Options:

A.

2

B.

4

C.

8

D.

10

E.

16

Question 5

Options:

A.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

B.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

C.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE Is sufficient.

D.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient

E.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Question 6

For which year between 1980 and 2008, inclusive, does the fee paid for television rights to that year's Olympic games represent the greatest percent increase over the fee paid for television rights to the Olympic games four years earlier?

Options:

A.

1998

B.

1984

C.

1992

D.

2000

E.

2008

Question 7

Options:

A.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

B.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

C.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

D.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient

E.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Question 8

Pete made a trip to the beach, of which 80 kilometers were on highway X. What was Pete’s average speed for the trip?

(1)

Pete’s average speed for the part of the trip on highway X was 80 kilometers per hour.

(2)

Pete’s average speed for the part of the trip not on highway X was 96 kilometers per hour.

Options:

A.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

B.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

C.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

D.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

E.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Question 9

For any data set, the proportion of data that lies within A" standard deviations of its mean is at least 1 - -K. The scores on a spelling test taken by 64 students have a mean of 74.0 and a standard deviation of 6.0. If t\$ the number of students who have scores greater than 62 and less than 86, and t\s as small as possible, what is the value of t?

Options:

A.

44

B.

48

C.

57

D.

61

E.

64

Question 10

If n and K are positive integers and n+ k< 8, how many different values of the product nk are possible?

Options:

A.

8

B.

9

C.

10

D.

12

E.

16

Question 11

Options:

A.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

B.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

C.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

D.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

E.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Question 12

Options:

A.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

B.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

C.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

D.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

E.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Question 13

If x ≠ 0, for which of the following sets of numbers is the average (arithmetic mean) equal to the median?

Options:

A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

III only

D.

I and II only

E.

I, II, and III

Question 14

The figure above shows a playground with Its dimensions given In meters. What is the area, In square meters, on the playground?

Options:

A.

81

B.

89

C.

91

D.

99

E.

101

Question 15

Consider all positive integers a, 6, and c such that 135 is a factor of each of the expressions 15a, 254, and 30c. What is the greatest common factor of all possible sums. a+b+c?

Options:

A.

3

B.

5

C.

9

D.

15

E.

27

Question 16

Options:

A.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

B.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

C.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

D.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

E.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER ate NOT sufficient.

Question 17

If 10 circles, all with different radii, are positioned in the same plane, what is the maximum possible number of distinct points where 2 or more of the circles intersect?

Options:

A.

90

B.

100

C.

180

D.

200

E.

360

Question 18

Of the 45 households in a certain neighborhood, 28 subscribe to Newspaper Q, 17 subscribe to Newspaper R, 12 subscribe to Newspaper S, 7 subscribe to both Q and R, 8 subscribe to both Q and 5, and 9 subscribe to both R and 5. The number of households who subscribe to all three newspapers is equal to the number of households who subscribe to none of the three newspapers. If 39 of the households subscribe to at least one of the three newspapers, how many households subscribe to only one of the newspapers?

Options:

A.

15

B.

21

C.

27

D.

33

E.

36

Question 19

Options:

A.

0 ≤ m ≤ 90

B.

90 ≤ m ≤ 180

C.

0 ≤ m ≤ 360

D.

180 ≤ m ≤ 360

E.

0 ≤ m ≤ 360

Question 20

Journal

The editor of Metathesis, a new academic journal of literature, manages the peer-review of articles submitted for publication. The journal accepts articles focusing on any of three general subject areas: comparative literature, modernist literature, and postcolonial literature.

When an article is submitted, the editor has the article peer-reviewed by exactly three experts, none of whom authored or coauthored the article. The table (see the Reviewers/Authors tab) consists of all the authors or coauthors who have recently submitted articles and all the experts who currently peer-review or have recently peer-reviewed those articles. It also lists the general subject areas for each of the authors and reviewers.

Each author of each submitted article specializes in the general subject area of the article. Moreover, each recently submitted article was peer-reviewed by experts listed in the table.

Review Rules

Options:

A.

Poundstone was a primary reviewer and Kenyatta the secondary reviewer.

B.

Nichols was a primary reviewer and Kenyatta the secondary reviewer.

C.

Kenyatta was a primary reviewer and Nichols the secondary reviewer.

D.

Nichols was a primary reviewer and Farkas the secondary reviewer.

E.

Poundstone was a primary reviewer and Huang the secondary reviewer

Question 21

A city's chamber of commerce has the following goal for small businesses: revenue should be at least 20% greater than costs. The Venn diagram indicates that x is the number of small businesses that both in Year 1 and in Year 2 met the goal. The diagram also indicates that 53 - x is the number of small businesses that met the goal in Year 1 but not in Year 2, and that 47 - x is the number of small businesses that met the goal in Year 2 but not in Year 1.

Options:

Question 22

At 10-year intervals from 1950 through 2010, the graph shows the total number of passengers, in millions, on the railway system of Nation X. From each drop-down menu, select the option that creates the most accurate statement based on the information provided.

Options:

Question 23

The graph shows the mean, the median, and the mode of monthly rents for apartments in a certain European city in 2008, 2009, and 2010. During each of these years, a large number of the residents of this city rented apartments. All of the rents were In whole euros (€).

Select from the drop-down menus the options that create the statement that K most strongly supported by the information provided.

Options:

Question 24

Each of the 75 employees at @ certain company works in exactly one of the company's 3 departments (Departments X, Y, and Z). Exactly 20% of the employees work in

Department X, and 10 fewer employees work in DepartmentY than work in Department Z.

Based on the information provided, select for Departinent Yand Department Zthe numbers of employees who work in Department Y and Department Z. Make only

two selections, one in each column.

Options:

Question 25

For a town seeking to desalinate source water with a salinity of 12,000 mg/L. select Consistent for each of the following statements that is consistent with the information and recommendations provided, and otherwise select Not consistent.

Options:

Question 26

At a carnival game, a winning player spins a wheel that always lands on either Prize 1 or Prize 2 to determine which of the two prizes he or she wins. The probability that the prize wheel indicates Prize 2 Is double the probability that It indicates Prize 1. If a player does not want the prize that the prize wheel first indicates, then he or she may spin the wheel again. In such cases, the player must accept whichever prize the prize wheel indicates on the second spin.

Select for Prize I the number nearest to the probability that a winning player who wants Prize 1 will receive Prize 1 after one or two spins of the prize wheel, and select for Prize ^the number nearest to the probability that a winning player who wants Prize 2 will receive Prize 2 after one or two spins of the prize wheel. Make only two selections, one in each column.

Options:

Question 27

The artist has correctly determined that to make the largest possible square grid from the available tiles, she must use all of the except for those in the group of X tiles. Moreover, if she uses all of the tiles except for those in the group with X tiles and those in the group with Y tiles, she could make a smaller square grid.

select for X for Y the values that are consistent with the information provided. Make only two selections, one in each column.

Options:

Question 28

The graph shows the total annual revenue. In US dollars (US$), from sales of each of 2 competing health-care products for 10 consecutive years. Product 1 was first sold In Year 1, and Product 2 was first sold ki Year 2.

From each drop-down menu, select the option that creates the most accurate statement based on the information provided.

Options:

Question 29

Archaeologists have excavated two ancient sites, Site A and Site B, each containing bowls and dishes. A third site containing similar vessels (bowls and dishes), Site C, Is known to have existed but has not yet been located. The vessels have been dated to three successive 40-vear-long time periods (Mil).

The dishes that were found are small and plain and were made primarily for everyday use. For each site, the average population at the site for a period is known to be roughly proportional to the number of dishes found that were dated to that period.

The bowls are more elaborate, decorated In either a curvy or a rectilinear style. They were made primarily for ritual use. The numbers of bowls found indicate the level of wealth of the site's inhabitants during the period to which the bowls were dated (with greater numbers indicating greater wealth).

Documents found at Sites A and B establish that exactly 18 of the dishes found at Site A were manufactured at Site C; otherwise, all of the vessels were made at the sites where they were found.

For each of the following statements, select Yes if the Information provided supports the statement. Otherwise, select No.

Options:

Question 30

A company processes boxes that have a number of different dimensions. Based on the dimensions of the boxes, the company classifies all of them In three categories. A, B. and C. The table Ms some examples of boxes, their Dimensions, and their classification categories.

Options:

Question 31

The color red has been shown to induce greater aggression in people than the

color blue, Researchers conducted a study to determine whether such colorinduced aggression could influence the amount that consumers were willing to

pay for an identical product in online auction and online negotiation scenarios.

The researchers photographed a single item against each of four background

colors: blue, gray, white, and red. Using a computer, each participant in the study

viewed the item against exactly one of the four background colors. Half of the

participants were told the item was up for auction and were asked to submit their

highest bid for the item. The other half of the participants were told to negotiate

a price with the seller and were asked to offer the highest amount that they

would be willing to pay for the item.

The researchers expected that participants who viewed the red background

would typically behave more aggressively than those who viewed the blue

background. Among the auction group, the researchers hypothesized that more

aggressive participants would submit higher bids as they tried to beat other

potential bidders. Among the negotiation group, the researchers hypothesized

that more aggressive participants would make lower offers as they tried to

compete against the seller to get the best deal.

For each of the following statements about the researchers' study, select Yes if

that statement accurately reflects the information provided. Otherwise, select No.

Options:

Question 32

West River Glen is deciding which network architecture should replace its old copper telephone lines. The town will replace 300 miles of Outside Plant (OSP) cable that will serve approximately 2,500 homes.

The first option is to install a Fiber to the Home (FTTH) system architecture that uses fiber-optic cable to transmit signals from the source to each home. The advantages of this architecture include greater bandwidth capabilities, less signal loss, and slightly lower new-cable deployment costs than the second option, Hybrid Fiber-Coax (HFC).

An HFC network integrates fiber-optic cables and devices with coaxial cables.

This will cost the town substantially less money for internal equipment and for customer installations. However, the coaxial cable does not last as long as fiberoptic cable and will thus need to be replaced more frequently, resulting in higher long-term maintenance expenses.

The town believes that either the FTTH or HFC architectures will be capable of serving the communities' data and television needs for the next 30 years.

For each of the following statements, select Yes if the statement can be inferred to be true on the basis of the information provided. Otherwise, select No.

Options:

Question 33

Sales promotions can involve selling a product at a relatively low price or selling the product with a free (or seemingly free) unit of the product, as in "buy one, get one free" campaigns. Research shows that immediately following month-long sales promotions, a postpromotion dip may occur, i.e., sales for the following calendar month may be less than sales for the calendar month preceding the sales promotion.

To increase sales, Storex, a department store, held month-long sales campaigns to promote four of its products. A sales promotion was considered successful if unit sales of the product were at least 10% higher in each of the 2 calendar months immediately following the promotion than In the month preceding it.

Experts have offered explanations for postpromotion dip:

• Explanation I: Many consumers stockpile the product at relatively low cost during the sales promotion.

• Explanation II: "Buy one, get one free" promotions cause some consumers to undervalue the product, making them less likely to buy it following the sales promotion.

• Explanation HI: Many consumers who missed a "buy one, get one free" opportunity may, as a result, develop so-called inaction inertia, i.e., become less likely to buy the product at either the regular or even at a discount price than if the sales promotion had not occurred.

Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the sales data, given the other Information provided?

Options:

A.

The April sales promotion for Product B was ineffective, unnecessary, or both.

B.

Consumers sought to stockpile Product B immediately following the April sales promotion.

C.

No postpromotion dip in Product B sales resulted from a sales promotion held in the six-month period.

D.

Sales of Product B would have increased in May and June even if there had been no sales promotion.

E.

There had been a largely ineffective sales promotion of Product B in the preceding December.

Question 34

Suppose that m and n are two positive integers such that m< n, their least common multiple is 294, and their greatest common divisor is 7. In the table, select a value for m and a value for n that are jointly consistent with the given information. Make only two selections, one in each column.

Options:

Question 35

Television picture quality improves as resolution increases. However, the resolution at which a given improvement in resolution becomes visible varies with the distance of

the viewer from the screen. As a viewer moves closer to the screen, a given improvement in resolution eventually becomes noticeable, finally conferring its “full benefit” at

a point at which moving closer would not improve the viewing experience.

On the graph, 480p, 720p, 1080p, and 1440p represent four common degrees of resolution: greater numbers indicate greater numbers of pixels on the screen and thus

greater resolution. Shaded portions show the distances at which these resolutions become noticeable, while the broken lines show the maximum distances at which a

viewer with normal eyesight would be expected to experience full benefit—all as a function of screen size. For each resolution and screen size shown, there is a small gap

between the maximum distance for full benefit from the resolution and the minimum distance for noticeable benefit from the next higher resolution.

(Note: 3 feet is roughly 1 meter, and 1 inch is roughly 2.5 centimeters.)

Assuming that the information contained in the graphic correctly applies to all viewers, select from the drop-down menus the options making the statements most

accurate.

Options:

Question 36

Welleby’s Plan

The water In the underground water table beneath the town of Welleby is moderately saline— 20,000millkjrarns of salt per liter of water (mg/L), or roughly half as saline as ocean water. To lower the level of the water table and thus prevent agricultural land from being inundated with salt water, the town plans to pump water from the table at a rate of 450kiloliters per day (kL/day) into a large shallow pond, allowing much of the water to evaporate. The town plans to divert 10percent of the water pumped from the water table to supplement Us supply of drinking water, which Is currently piped In from great distances. Due to the water's supply, the town intends to construct a desalination plant to treat the diverted water for use as drinking water.

Desalination Types

Comparison

Welleby is deciding among the following three desalination methods.

Reverse Osmosis (RO): Water Is pushed through a membrane, leaving salts behind. RO systems can handle a large range of water flow rates and use relatively little energy. However, RO membranes are expensive and must be replaced every 2 to 5 years. There is also a possibility that bacteria can grow on the membrane. Introducing tastes and odors Into the desalinated water.

Multi-Effect Distillation (MED): Saline water Is heated to produce water vapor, from which Is condensed potable fresh water. This process requires large amounts of energy, regardless of the salinity of the source water. It becomes more cost effective as water volumes increase.

Electrodialysis (ED): Electricity is used to selectively move salts through a membrane. Consumption of energy Is directly proportional to the salinity of the water to be treated, so with higher salinities the process rapidly becomes more costly than other methods. ED membranes need to be replaced every 7 to 10years.

Based on the information provided, which one of the following benefits to Welleby is most likely to result from Its building a desalination plant?

Options:

A.

Reduced dependence on distant sources for drinking water

B.

Reduced costs for pumping water from the underground water

C.

table Increased quantity of agricultural land

D.

Reduced salinity of the underground water table

E.

Reduced average salinity of the town's drinking water

Question 37

Art expert: If a painting is from the Hudson River School of the mid-nineteenth century United States, it will display a romantic reverence for landscape, portraying pastoral

scenes in which humans and nature coexist peacefully. The painting that was recently discovered in the attic of the old town hall dates from the 1850s and portrays a

pastoral landscape in which two couples are having a peaceful picnic. So the painting must be from the Hudson River School.

The critic’s argument is flawed in that it

Options:

A.

mistakenly treats a class of things with certain properties as the only kind of things with those properties

B.

states a generalization based on an inadequate piece of evidence

C.

fails to recognize that a particular term can have more than one meaning

D.

depends on a premise that the argument suggests is false

E.

improperly assumes that because something has a particular property, the parts of that thing will also have the property

Question 38

The passage most strongly indicates that the author would agree with which of the following statements?

Options:

A.

None of the subjects in the various studies other than the 1998 study who seemed to commit the conjunction fallacy actually did commit it.

B.

People who have studied the mathematical principles of probability are very unlikely to commit the conjunction fallacy.

C.

The conjunction fallacy is rarely committed outside of betting contexts.

D.

Many of the subjects in the various studies In addition to the 1998 study probably committed the conjunction fallacy.

E.

The conceptions of "probability" that underlie everyday use of the word rarely, if ever, conform to the mathematical principles of probability.

Question 39

The passage is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?

Options:

A.

Surveying the different mechanisms that plants adopt to defend themselves from predators

B.

Citing an experiment that explains why a certain kind of organism has difficulty in locating its prey

C.

Providing an example of farmers' current use of one insect to prey on another that damages their crops

D.

Describing an instance in which one kind of organism exploits the behavior of another kind of organism in order to protect itself from a predator

E.

Describing an instance in which one kind of organism defends itself from predators by mimicking the behavior of another kind of organism

Question 40

Daniel: Historically, railroads substantially altered the course of the United States economy, enabling the country to enjoy unprecedented growth in the nineteenth century.

Robert: It's true that growth required cheap inland transportation, which railroads provided. But with government support similar to the massive land grants that subsidized rapid railroad expansion, canals and roads could have had the same effect.

Which of the following is most likely a point that Robert believes is at issue between Daniel and himself?

Options:

A.

Whether the nineteenth-century economic growth in the U.S. was caused by railroads

B.

Whether the government should have supported canals and roads in the U.S. in the nineteenth century

C.

Whether railroads' contribution to economic growth was enabled by government support

D.

Whether economic growth depends on government support for technology that encourages that growth

E.

Whether railroads were necessary for the unprecedented economic growth in the U.S in the nineteenth century

Question 41

As a trained medical doctor and a novelist, playwright, and essayist by vocation, Afro-Colombian Manuel Zapata Olivella abandoned the practice of medicine to pursue his

literary career.

Options:

A.

As a trained medical doctor

B.

A medical doctor by training

C.

Although trained as a medical doctor

D.

Either a medical doctor by training

E.

While being a trained medical doctor

Question 42

It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that multinational companies

Options:

A.

are more likely to be financially successful in emerging nations if they aty themselves with local businesses that are using environmental sustainability Initiatives to drive growth

B.

are less prone to the problems associated with the halo effect than are companies based only in one nation.

C.

are increasingly likely to buy out emerging-nation companies that have successfully developed and Implemented environmental sustainability initiatives

D.

are usually able to implement large-scale environmental sustainability Initiatives only after they have achieved a certain level of profitability.

E.

tend to develop environmental sustainability initiatives that differ significantly from those that have been successfully and more easily implemented by smaller companies In the emerging world

Question 43

The primary purpose of the passage is to

Options:

A.

explain how, in certain types of markets, gray marketing can improve margins and profits for manufacturers and authorized retailers

B.

identify the effects, both beneficial and detrimental, that gray markets have on manufacturers and authorized retailers

C.

outline a course of action that manufacturers and authorized retailers can

take to gain benefits from gray marketing

D.

present the results of a study that indicates that under most conditions gray markets are beneficial to manufacturers and authorized retailers

E.

provide arguments for and against the view that gray markets are beneficial to manufacturers and authorized retailers

Question 44

As much as. experience influences human preferences and values, the loss of firsthand experience with nature is likely to contribute to a reduced valuation of biodiversity by humans in the future—a dismal prospect for the diversity of life.

Options:

A.

As much as,

B.

As a whole.

C.

Inasmuch as

D.

As such.

E.

On the whole

Question 45

For the first time, prospectors have laid claim to rich deposits of gold, silver, and copper in the deep sea, foreshadowing a possible rush to the open oceans for metals and a possible fight with conservationists over exploitation of the sea's dark recesses.

Options:

A.

prospectors have laid claim to rich deposits of gold, silver, and copper in the deep sea, foreshadowing a possible rush to the open oceans for metals and a possible fight

B.

prospectors have laid claim to rich deposits of gold, silver, and copper in the deep sea, which foreshadows a possible rush to the open oceans for metals and possibly a fight

C.

prospectors have laid claim to rich deposits of gold, silver, and copper in the deep sea, foreshadowing a possible rush to the open oceans for metals and possibly fighting

D.

prospectors, having laid claim to rich deposits of gold, silver, and copper in the deep sea, and foreshadowing a possible rush to the open oceans for metals and a possible fight

E.

prospectors having laid claim to rich deposits of gold, silver, and copper in the deep sea foreshadows a possible rush to the open oceans for metals and possibly fighting

Question 46

Which of the following is the most likely reason that the author mentions the work o* the astronomers in 1998 (see highlighted text)?

Options:

A.

To counter the common view among astronomers in 1998 that no planets orbited around HR 8799

B.

To show that Earth based telescopes are generally more accurate than is the Hubble telescope

C.

To help explain why scientists felt it necessary to archive the Hubble images of HR8799

D.

To highlight the potential value that the new technique could have for Researchers

E.

To emphasize mistakes researchers made in 1998 when examining the Hubble images of HR 8799

Question 47

Editorial: For the past two years, our dty has used photo radar to enforce speed limits at several Intersections, automatically photographing cars, measuring their speeds, and mailing tickets to offending drivers. In the second year of the program, the annual number of violations observed by photo radar dropped by 5 percent. This shows that the program has been effective at reducing speeding on the monitored streets.

The editorial's reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on which of the following grounds?

Options:

A.

It overlooks the possibility that speeding may have increased on many streets not monitored by photo radar.

B.

It takes for granted that any other method of enforcing speed limits would be less effective than photo radar.

C.

It fails to adequately address the possibility that the annual number of speeding violations in the city may fluctuate at random from year to year.

D.

It conflates the claim that photo radar may Increase the incidence of speeding with the claim that a reduction in speeding has resulted in fewer observed violations.

E.

It confuses a justified conclusion about the program's effectiveness with an unsubstantiated explanation of why the program has been effective.

Question 48

If n is an even Integer, which of the following must also be an even integer?

Options:

A.

II only

B.

III only

C.

I and II only

D.

II, and III, only

E.

I, II, and III

Question 49

Despite the fact that the seeds of certain tropical trees fall mostly around the parent tree, the seeds that land farther from the parent trees of these species have the greatest chance of germinating. One hypothesis is that the effect is caused by rodents eating a larger number of seeds beside the parent tree than seeds in places farther away, but studies have shown that this is not so.

Which of the following, If true, would most help explain the effect described above?

Options:

A.

Tree sprouts from seeds must compete for moisture and nutrients with some of the plant life in their immediate vicinity.

B.

Some tropical trees have winged seeds that tend to prevent them landing beside the parent trees.

C.

Certain tropical tree species are preferentially colonized by some types of mammals.

D.

Soil microbes that prey on seeds and other biological material from trees of the tropical species in question tend to be densest near those trees.

E.

Some plants emit chemicals that are harmful to nearby seeds of other species.

Question 50

It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following occurs when a salesperson employs the top-down sales tactic and does not occur when the bottom-up sales tactic is employed?

Options:

A.

The customer tends to question the honesty and credibility of the salesperson.

B.

The customer uses decision heuristics to simplify the information-rich decision task.

C.

The salesperson suggests that the more expensive item is actually a better value.

D.

The salesperson focuses on the sacrifices Involved in moving to lower-priced models in the product line.

E.

The salesperson presents a particular model as a reference point from which the customer must adjust to yield a final decision.

Question 51

The ornithologist interpreted the ravens' behavior as indicating that they were looking for another bird's food cache of which it did not know its exact location.

Options:

A.

of which it did not know its exact location

B.

that they did not know exactly where it was

C.

the exact location of which was unknown to them

D.

and it did not know exactly where it was

E.

which the exact location was unknown to them

Question 52

In 90 percent of the commercial airline accidents last year, one or another of a group consisting of only 18 percent of the world's commercial airlines was involved. Since the other 82 percent of airlines were generally flying the same types of airplanes as the accident-prone airlines, significant differences in safety procedures must have been responsible for these differences In safety records.

Which of the following, if true about the world's commercial airlines last year, most seriously weakens the argument above?

Options:

A.

Fifteen percent of the airlines were responsible for 97 percent of all air miles flown, and those airlines were involved in 87 percent of the accidents.

B.

The accident-prone airlines were cited by their governments for a significantly higher number of safety violations than were the other airlines.

C.

After an airline is involved in a serious accident, many of its regular customers switch to another airline, and some flights are canceled.

D.

Twenty percent of the airlines employ personnel currently serving in their country's armed forces.

E.

Twenty-four percent of the airplanes in regular service are over fifteen years old.

Question 53

The passage takes up the issue of aggregation of data in order to

Options:

A.

show how it provides a basis for minimizing large variations in the amount of goods produced over time and thus reduces costs

B.

consider the possibility that it masked the applicability of the production smoothing model for individual firms

C.

contrast the use of inventory as buffer with its use to smooth production

D.

describe a method of extracting meaningful information from slight individual variations

E.

provide a reason why the production-smoothing buffer model is inadequate to represent the actual situation of production

Question 54

Which of the following, if true, would most undermine the reasoning offered for the claim that gray markets can in certain conditions lead to increased profits among authorized retailers?

Options:

A.

More consumers have become price-sensitive over the last ten years and this trend will continue for the foreseeable future.

B.

Gray markets typically remain strong even in markets where authorized retailers have introduced service enhancements.

C.

Price wars among authorized retailers, triggered by the appearance of gray markets when few, if any, consumers are price-insensitive, lead to a cycle of increasing price reductions that severely narrow profit margins.

D.

Authorized retailers who are competing for the business of price-insensitive consumers often become involved in a cycle of expensive service enhancements that significantly narrow profit margins.

E.

Manufacturers who fear that gray marketing will tarnish their brand names sometimes subsidize advertising for authorized retailers, thereby narrowing the manufacturers' profit margins.

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Total 465 questions